Errors that could that potentially happened is when titrating it was difficult to tell when the equivalence point actually occurred, causing more or less amount of EDTA to present. There are two types: During the production of steam in the boiler, due to rapid boiling, some droplets of liquid water are carried along with steam. The formula used to convert the mass of hardness producing salt to mass of CaCO3 equivalents is given below:. Eye protection Measuring cylinders 10 cm 3 , 5 one for each of A to E below Each group of students will need: The concentration of salts and sludge in the boiler can be controlled by internal treatment and blow down operation.

This is called as boiler scale. So this method is less preferred. Page last updated July They use a dropping pipette to add this to the distilled water and the salt solutions. Sodium aluminate gets hydrolyzed yielding NaoH and a gelatinous precipitate of aluminium hydroxide. The water that is fit for drinking purposes is called potable water. If this essay isn’t quite what you’re looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

Disadvantages of hard water: Hardness of Water send By clicking “Send”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy.

Disadvantages of Zeolites Process: Soap becomes less effective when hard water is present because the soap will bond with the minerals in the water. Different parts of the boiler become weak and distorted due to overheating. It can limit the growth of bio-film within the distribution system and its associated taste and odor problems.


How about couursework it original? Under the sink the installations are costly and take up a lot of space. With the phosphates used as internal treatment, calcium reacts with the phosphate producing hydroxyapatite, which is much easier to condition than calcium sulfate. Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website! Wear eye protection throughout.

Hardness of Water Essay

Condensate system protection may be accomplished by the use of volatile amines or volatile filming inhibitors. The water softening process works by passing the hard water through resin beads. Make a note of the volumes of soap solution that were needed in each case to produce a lather.

chemistry coursework hardness of water

The formation of stable bubbles above the surface of water is called foaming. The reverse osmosis removes inorganic minerals such as radium, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, potassium, nitrate, fluoride, boron and phosphorous. Causes for priming and the prevention methods for priming: This is a student practical, where a lot of the preparation work has been done beforehand. This experiment should take about 30 minutes. This is called as boiler scale.

chemistry coursework hardness of water

Intermediate students should be able to track the cause of hardness down to these cations and say that the anions make no difference. A Zeolite softener consists of steel watef packed with a thick layer of permutit. Presence of finely divided particles.

The chlorination process is integrated into water treatment plants as a primary or secondary disinfection method. Hardness of water is usually attributed to calcium and magnesium salts but any cation with two or more charges can cause it eg iron II here.

Cause reduced fuel economy, important boiling, boiler explosion etc. Our new website is coming soon.


Hardness in water, USGS Water Science School

They chemjstry not form a stable emulsion and precipitate out overnight. Temporarily hard water is defined as that which can be watet by boiling. The distillation removes radium, odor, off-tastes, heavy metals, some pesticides, nitrate, fluoride and salt.

The reaction between the red indicator-metal complex and the EDTA reagent at the end point can be represented as follows: What I could’ve done to improve my experiment: For feedwater oxygen scavenging, the various chemicals used are sodium sulfite and hydrazine.

Chemistry coursework hardness of water – Case Study: Hard Water – Chemistry LibreTexts

When chemidtry cation exchange resin in exhausted, it can be regenerated by passing a solution of dil. Soap Test for Water Hardness – Chemistry experiments – MEL Practicum With more able groups, it might be worth considering that rainwater is completely soft, so that the volume of soap required here is just the amount required to get a lather, not to overcome hardness.

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It also consumes large amounts of water if the coolant used in the distillation process is water.