Initially-hot water has lost much of its ordered clustering higher entropy [ ] and, if the cooling time is sufficiently short, this will not be fully re-attained before freezing. He found that, like the ice cream, containers of boiling hot water seemed to take less time than cold water to freeze. For example, I read a paper that was a link from the Science Buddies website, and it was interesting how many variables seemed to affect the results. More recent experiments about the Mpemba effect were conducted. Burridge has replied to my points, and I give his unedited reply below even though I believe it to be mistaken, misleading and highly contentious.

In addition to researching heat and heat transfer, you should also study previous experiments on this phenomenon. There are many reasons why you might not be seeing the Mpemba Effect, and to be perfectly honest, no one really knows the true reason behind the Mpemba Effect. You’ll be able to read more articles, watch more videos and listen to more podcasts. Thus, as molecules evaporate from a liquid, they take away energy from the liquid, cooling it. Carbon dioxide should be used and stored in an area with proper ventilation. Their paper goes on to present experimental results, but only for the cooling process to temperatures well above those of freezing water and certainly not including the freezing process which was never observed.

There are many reasons why you might not be seeing the Mpemba Effect, and to be perfectly honest, no one really knows the true reason behind the Mpemba Effect.

research paper mpemba effect

This commentary was established in and put on its own page in being last updated by Martin Chaplin on 29 March, However, Mpemba was not the first to discover the amazing freezing abilities of heated water. In order to understand how this could happen, you will need to do some background research on heat and heat transfer.

Investigating the ‘Mpemba Effect’: Can Hot Water Freeze Faster than Cold Water?

The Mpemba effect is then simply explained by the loss of nanobubbles in the hot water which are kinetically too slow to reform on cooling. You can try things like not opening the door all the way whenever you measure the water temperature, and measuring as fast as possible without losing accuracy. To save time and make sure that he got a spot in the freezer, Mpemba put his mixture in while it was still hot.


Joseph Black, Philosophical TransactionsVol. Can Hot Water Freeze before Cold? As the surfaces of nanobubbles are thought to be negative, such nanobubbles, with their extensive surface area are expected to increase supercooling. The graph in Figure 1 shows some of Walker’s data. Erfect behavior has been observed in carbon nano-tubes resonators reseaech ].

If a pair of temperature-different cups of water were set in the freezer, then the hotter water will freeze faster than the colder water. You’ve probably heard the saying reesarch “hot air rises.

When Mpemba later asked his teacher for an explanation of how his hotter ice cream mixture could freeze before a cooler one, the teacher teased him, “Well all I can papef is that is Mpemba physics and not the universal physics” quote in Jeng, More recent experiments about the Mpemba effect were conducted. Mpemba followed his curiosity and did more experiments with both water and milk, which confirmed his initial findings.

Try one of our science activities for quick, anytime science explorations. The fact of the matter is that sometimes it works, and sometimes it doesn’t.

research paper mpemba effect

The conditions influencing the effect appear to be very difficult to control. It seems that because of all the different variables at play, subtle variations in the experimental technique can lead to huge differences in the results that are observed.

The Mpemba effect: fact or fiction? | News | Chemistry World

Here is a quick summary, so that you can be familiar with the terms you will encounter. Ouellette, Jennifer, Zivkovic, Bora. Also of relevance here is that the formation of clathrate icespwper have structures closely related to the icosahedral clusters, behaves in an opposite manner.

You won’t need that much heat to warm up the water, and even though it will take a little longer to raise the water temperature while maintaining a low stove temperature, a lower stove temperature is a lot psper. For example, in the hotter areas of the earth where water is lacking, it is very common to see that people desire for cooling beverages to satisfyingly refresh their perspiring bodies.


research paper mpemba effect

ppaper H—O hydrogen bond is not fully reversible, and the described cooling curves have recently been challenged [ ]. The independent variable in this experiment is the temperature at which the water will be stored. Physicists take on the challenge of explaining events that happen on the grandest scale imaginable to those that happen at the level of the smallest atomic particles.

For example, water becomes solid ice at its freezing point of 32 degrees Fahrenheit or 0 degrees Celsius Biddle and Parker Experiments on the low-density water around macromolecules have shown that such clustering processes may take some time [ 4 ]. Inyear-old Mpemba was taught how to make ice cream for a science experiment in his middle school class. As it is difficult to pinpoint at what time freezing occurs you’d efgect to look for tiny crystals of ice forming in random places in the water!

Will the conditions in your experiment lead to hot water or cold water freezing first? Research Perovskite photovoltaics get their groove on 22 May Clever structure boosts efficiency and cuts production costs. Difficulty Time Required Average days Prerequisites Careful attention to the details of your experimental method are required for this project.

The Resewrch effect, ‘ Hot water may freeze faster than cold water ‘, was brought to the attention of the scientific community by the efcect of Erasto Resrarch [ ] a year-old Tanzanian schoolboy, a who refused to reject his own evidence, or bow to disbelieving mockery, that he could freeze ice cream faster if he warmed it first.